“Many slaves escaped to the North before emancipation, while some, of course, migrated to Liberia, Haiti and Central America. The Emancipation Proclamation cut many loose from the land and, starting with the end of the Civil War, there developed a steady trickle of freed men from the South. During Reconstruction, this northward migration eased somewhat with the ability of black people to take advantage of the franchise. Soon after, however, southern racism and fanaticism broke loose. Thousands of black people were killed in the 1870’s in an effort by whites to destroy the political power that blacks had gained. This was all capped by the deal of 1876, whereby the Republicans guaranteed that Mr. Hayes, when President, would, by non-interference and withdrawal of troops, allow the planters — under the name Democrats — to gain control of the Deep South. The withdrawal of these troops by President Hayes and the appointment of a Kentuckian and Georgian to the Supreme Court marked the handwriting on the wall.”

Source: Kwame Ture and Charles V. Hamilton. Black Power. pg. 149-150. 1967.

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