“…I must note that several plants in the Sudanic agricultural complex — the bottle gourd, a species of jackbean and of yam, a strain of cultivated cotton — have been discovered in pre-Columbian strata in Middle and South America. The three main currents off the coast of Africa (off the Cape Verde, the Senegambia, and the southern African coast) which suck everything that remains afloat from Africa to America, can explain an unmanned drift voyage before Columbus of the bottle gourd. The other plants, however, could not have come into this continent without the help of man. This has been clearly established by botanists. They would have either submerged below the current and eventually sank or, if held up by driftwood, would have been unable to preserve their potency during a long drift. In models of African-type boats, such as we have described above, common on African waterways long before Columbus, the Atlantic journey has been successfully accomplished. New studies of the Atlantic crossing show that African raft or reed boats could travel 60 miles per day on the currents, sailboats (and the wind is usually favorable) about a hundred miles per day. Gales seldom occur and most crossings are gentle. Thus Alain Bombard, using an African boat and fishing gear, did the journey in less time than either Columbus or Vespucci, whose sails, by the way, were lateen sails developed by the Arabs on another ocean.”

Source: Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. Blacks In Science: Ancient and Modern. pg. 19. 1983.

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