“The broad immunity from civil liability that judges in the U.S. Enjoy does not extend to criminal conduct. Judges are liable for any criminal conduct on or off the bench. Ex parte Virginia is the leading federal case. In 1878 the petitioner, a county court judge in Virginia, was arrested for having unlawfully excluded African-Americans from serving as jurors in violation of the Civil Rights Act of 1875. Although the Court rejected the argument that jury selection constituted a judicial act, the majority concluded by violating the statute the judge acted without judicial authority.”

Source: John O. Haley. “The Civil, Criminal and Disciplinary Liability of Judges.” The American Journal of Comparative Law 54 (2006): 281-291.

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