“Equal opportunity — an ideal that Americans agreed upon in the 1960s and have valued ever since — is under threat… The threat is playing out in the American courts as they shape employment discrimination law under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, the principal federal statute prohibiting discrimination in the United States. Over the past several decades, the courts have driven the law in a dramatic turn toward protecting employers from liability for discrimination. The shift is pervasive and in forward motion. It is affecting all areas, from the law governing individual acts of discrimination and harassment to the law of systemic discrimination. Worse, hidden as it is behind talk of procedure, agency principles, and civility codes, the shift is going unnoticed.”

Pay attention!

Source: Tristin K. Greene. Discrimination Laundering: The Rise of Organizational Innocence and and the Crisis of Equal Opportunity Law. pg. 1. 2016.


“After three years of unprecedented drought, the South African city of Cape Town has less than 90 days worth of water in its reservoirs, putting it on track to be the first major city in the world to run out of water. Unless residents drastically cut down on daily use, warns Cape Town Mayor Patricia De Lille, taps in the seaside metropolis of four million will soon run dry. On April 22, to be exact.”

This is horrible!

Source: TIME. January 16, 2018. http://time.com/5103259/cape-town-water-crisis/

“A recent nationwide survey from the National School Board Association reports that the number of women on local school boards in 2002 stood at forty percent, up from 33 percent in 1981. Minority representation increases over the same period, from 8.5 percent to 14 percent, but continues to lag behind the rising proportion of minority students in U.S. public schools (43 percent in 2005). Large school systems (those enrolling twenty-five thousand or more students) tend to have more racially heterogenous boards”

No school board in the United States should be racially homogenous! That’s one of the reasons things are so bad and f’ed up now!

Source: Foundations of Education. 11th ed. pg. 209.

“The existentialist author Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) stated that ‘Existence precedes Essence.’ Sartre, a playwright and philosopher, emphasized the role of human imagination as a wag of knowing and feeing. For Sartre, we are born into a word we did not choose to be in and that we did not make. However,we posses the personal power, the will, to make choices and to create our own purposes for existence. We are thrust into choice-making situations. Some choices are trivial, but those that does with the purpose and meaning of life to personal self-definition.”

Source: Foundations of Education. 11th ed. pg. 180.

“[John] Dewey argued that we cannot rely on tradition in education; we need to test educational programs to see whether they really have the results that we want. Did a particular educational program, curricular design, or methodological strategy achieve its anticipated goals and objectives? Since we and the environment are constantly changing, a curriculum based on supposedly permanent realities or universal truth is untenable. Our decision making can be guided only by our experience. Any claim to truth is really a tentative assertion that we can revise as we do more research. What we need, say pragmatists, is a socially and scientifically intelligent method that gives us some direction in a constantly changing reality.”

Source: Foundations of Education. pg. 177.