“We like to believe that decisions made in U.S. courts are determined by the wisdom of the Constitution, and guided by fair-minded judges and juries of our peers. Unfortunately, this is often wishful thinking. Unsettling research into the psychology of courtroom decisions has shown that our personal backgrounds, unconscious biases about race, gender and appearance, and even the time of day play a more important role in outcomes than the actual law. Adam Benforado, a professor of law at Drexel University, describes these unsettling problems with the justice system in the recently published book “Unfair: The New Science of Criminal Injustice.” The book uses psychology and neuroscience to examine and expose the illogical and unfair ways that judges, jurors, attorneys and others in the legal system make decisions about who is sent to prison, and who walks free.”

Source: Ana Swanson. “The U. S. Court System Is Criminally Unjust.” The Washington Post. July 20, 2015. 

“The ancient peoples of Mesopotamia are sometimes called the Chaldeans, but this is inaccurate and confusing. Before the Chaldean rule in Mesopotamia there where the flourishing empires of the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. The earliest civilization of this region was established by the Sumerians. They are designated in the Assyrio-Babylonian inscriptions as the blackheads or black-faced people, and they are shown on the monuments as beardless and with shaven heads. This clearly distinguishes them from the Semitic Babylonians, who are depicted with beards and long hair. About four thousand years B.C. the Sumerians had attained a high level of civilization in southern Babylonia. They tilled the soil, practiced irrigation, erected cities, reared cattle, and invented a system of writing which they bequeathed to their Semitic successors. The Sumerians indubitably builded well, for none of the future cultures of Mesopotamia ever surpassed them in the various arts and sciences.”

Source: John G. Jackson. Introduction to African Civilizations. pg. 71. 1970.

“We must remember that these scientific achievements happen at centers, not on the periphery of cultures. We now live in a global village, so, if anything is invented anywhere, we’re all connected by communications. It automatically transmits itself almost instantly somewhere else. In the early world, wherever you were, in Europe, Africa, Asia — if you shatter the center, it disappears. The reason that we did not know of these sophistications is that after the conquest of Africa and America, the slave trade, and the breakup of centralized empires in Africa, all of these things went underground. It was like a holocaust; it’s as if you had hit Africa with six hydrogen bombs. There’s an Africa before, and there’s an Africa after the holocaust. The burgeoning technology, these incipient technologies, were halted. The point being made is not the lack of inventive capacity or the lack of technological sophistication, but that there is a break, there is a shattering, an explosion. There’s no sense in us mourning the loss, but rather becoming aware of the potential that lay there so that we can pick up from that broken world and recover its fragments — to make whole again that which has been shattered.”

Source: Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. “African Science Before The Birth Of The ‘New’ World.” 2002.

“So, you see, whether it is navigational, oceanographic, cartographic, linguistic, botanical, eyewitness account, skeletal, epigraphical…there is evidence in nearly a dozen disciplines [proving the African origins of civilization]. No find, in any archeological context, even if you go back to early man, can provide evidence of its existence in nearly a dozen disciplines. Therefore, there is absolutely no reason, except prejudice and a refusal to look at the evidence, that can dismiss this as simply fantasy.”

Source: Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. “African Science Before The Birth Of The ‘New’ World.” 2002.

“…Mr. J. A. Rogers, member of the Paris Anthropological Society, when visiting Egypt some years ago, climbed to the top of the Great Pyramid and he observed this fragment of iron, lodged between two stone blocks of this great ancient structure. That iron tools were used by the ancient Egyptians in building the Great Pyramid is stated as a fact by Herodotus. In statements of fact we may safely rely on the judgment of the ‘Father of History.'”

Source: John G. Jackson. Introduction to African Civilizations. pg. 63-64. 1970.

“Many people thought that the Africans could not travel. But, in fact, Thor Hyerdahl got Africans on Lake Chad, through a man called Abdullah Djibrine, to rebuild a papyrus reed boat which had been used by Africans before Christ. That boat successfully crossed the Atlantic in 1969. It crossed from Safi in North Africa all the way to Barbados. The important thing about the Hyerdahl experiment was that the steering rudder broke on the first day, so, the boat came by itself, drown by the currents. There are three currents off Africa that will take anything to America, if the fish don’t get it first. Dr. Bombard, in 1952, made the journey in the most ancient and primitive boat, a dugout. He crossed without a crew, without a sail, without food or water, using an African fishing kit and an instrument to squeeze juice out of the fish. He made it across in less time than Columbus or Vespucci. The reason he made it in less time is that there are two advantages that Africans have. First, Africa is only 1500 miles from America at its nearest point; Europe is 3,000 miles away, twice as far. Second, Europe does not have the advantage of the African current. In addition, on the Indian Ocean we have found boats which took elephants to China 200 years before Columbus. You can’t bring elephants to China in a dugout.”

Source: Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. “African Science Before The Birth Of The ‘New’ World.” 2002.

“In addition to the botanical evidence, there is cartographic evidence — maps. There are two maps. One is known as the Piti Reis map, a very early map which has Cairo as the meridian for its computation of longitude. Nobody in Europe, 200 years after Columbus, could plot latitude and longitude. One hundred and fifty years after the death of Columbus, the Encyclopedia of Europe reported that longitude had not been discovered and was probably undiscoverable. Yet this map showed the correct latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates between the African Atlantic coast and the South American Atlantic coast. It has the Amazon river plotted. It has the Atrata river in Columbia plotted for 300 miles accurately. In addition to that, there is the Andrea Biancho map, which appeared in 1448. It has the exact coastline of Brazil, and the exact distance between West Africa and Brazil.”

Source: Dr. Ivan Van Sertima. “African Science Before The Birth Of The ‘New’ World.” 2002.